List of threatened rays

Manta rays include the largest rays in the world, and have been targeted by fisheries to the point where they have become vulnerable or endangered.[1] In 2013 they were listed as CITES Appendix II species, which gives them some international protection.[2]

The market for shark and ray products is first and foremost a luxury one: The gill plates, in the case of manta rays, are used in China for a tonic soup that has become fashionable because of perceived medicinal properties, even though it is not in the traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia. This is a recent trend and has caused a population loss of up to 86% in the last six to eight years.

WWF 2013 [3]

Threatened rays are those vulnerable to endangerment (extinction) in the near future. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) ranks threatened species in three categories:[4]

VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable species
EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered species
CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.[4] The terms can be used somewhat interchangeably, as all vulnerable species are threatened, all endangered species are vulnerable and threatened, and all critically endangered species are endangered, vulnerable and threatened. Threatened species are also referred to as a red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[5]

Together rays and sharks make up the class of modern cartilaginous fishes. Modern fish are either cartilaginous or bony. Cartilaginous fishes have skeletons made of cartilage while bony fishes have skeletons made of bone. Because rays and sharks are closely related, they are often studied together. In 2010 a global IUCN study of vertebrates found that of 1,044 cartilaginous (ray and shark) species examined, 345 or 33% were threatened with extinction.[6][7]

There are four orders of rays: stingrays, skates, electric rays and sawfishes. Like sharks, rays are relatively long living and thrive in stable populations. They are K-strategists which grow slowly, mature late sexually and produce few offspring. They cannot recover as rapidly as many faster growing fish can if their populations are depleted.[8] As with sharks, rays are increasingly becoming vulnerable because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-ray fisheries on the seabed and ray prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[9] Most particularly, the continuing decline of threatened rays and sharks is the consequence of unregulated fishing.[10]

Sawfish are a family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. All species in the family are either endangered or critically endangered[11]

Manta rays are largest rays in the world, with wingspans reaching 7 metres.[12] They have one of the highest brain-to-body mass ratios of all fish.[13] Manta populations suffer when they are caught as bycatch by fishermen fishing for other species, but fisheries which target manta rays are even more harmful. Manta rays use their gills to filter plankton from the sea. Demand for their dried gill rakers, cartilaginous structures protecting the gills, has been growing in traditional Chinese medicine practices.[14] The market is "bogus" since dried manta gills have never been used historically in Chinese medicine, and there is no evidence that the gills have any medicinal value.[12][15][16] The flesh is edible and is consumed in some countries, but is tough and unattractive compared to other fish. To fill the growing demand in Asia for gill rakers, targeted fisheries have developed in other parts of the world, including Sri Lanka, Indonesia, West Africa and Central and South America.[17] Each year, thousands of manta rays, primarily the giant manta ray, are being caught and killed purely for their gill rakers. A fisheries study in Sri Lanka estimated that over a thousand of these were being sold in the country's fish markets each year.[18]

In 2011, manta rays became strictly protected in international waters thanks to their recent inclusion in the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals. The CMS is an international treaty organization concerned with conserving migratory species and habitats on a global scale. Although individual nations were already protecting manta rays, the fish often migrate through unregulated waters, putting them at increased risk from overfishing.[19] In 2013, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) listed both species of manta rays as CITES Appendix II species. This means that the international trade of manta rays will now be monitored and regulated.[2][20]

Sawfish are a less well known family of rays which have a long rostrum resembling a saw. Some species can reach 7 metres or 23 feet in length.[21][22][23] All species of sawfish are either endangered or critically endangered as a result of habitat destruction and overfishing.[11] Their young stay close to shore, and are particularly affected by coastal developments.[24] Because their rostrum is easily entangled, sawfishes can easily become bycatch in fishing nets. They are also exploited for the novelty value of their rostrum, their fins are eaten as a delicacy in China, and their liver oil used as a food supplement. While arguing for a global ban on international commerce in 2007, a representative from the National Museums of Kenya stated, "Only the meat is consumed locally; and artisanal fishermen can retire after catching one sawfish due to the high value of a single rostrum, up to $1,450."[11] In 2013 CITES uplisted the largetooth sawfish to Appendix I. This is CITES highest protection level, and means that all international trade of the species is banned.[25][26]

According to a 2021 study published in the journal Nature, relative fishing pressure in the oceans has increased by a factor of 18 since 1970.[27] This overfishing has resulted in the number of oceanic sharks and rays declining globally by 71%, and has increased the global extinction risk to the point where three-quarters of these species are now threatened with extinction. Precautionary science-based catch limits and strict prohibitions are now needed urgently if population collapse is to be avoided,[28][29] if the disruption of ecological functions is to be averted,[30] and if a start is to be made on rebuilding global fisheries.[31][27]

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend IUCN status Fish
Base
FAO Comment
Stingray M.E. Blochii ... Systema ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum (Plate 73) (7038524053).jpg Aetobatus flagellum Longheaded eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[32] [33]
Stingray Aetomylaeus maculatus 01.jpg Aetomylaeus maculatus Mottled eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[32] [34]
Stingray Aetomylaeus nichofii Banded eagle ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[35] [36]
Stingray Ornate eagle ray (Aetomylaeus vespertilio) Baa Atoll, Maldives (2018).jpg Aetomylaeus vespertilio Ornate eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[37] [38]
Skate Amblyraja radiata Gervais.jpg Amblyraja radiata Thorny skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[39] [40]
Sawfish AnoxypristisCuspidataCSIRO.jpg Anoxypristis cuspidata Knifetooth sawfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[41] [42]
Stingray Aptychotrema timorensis csiro.jpg Aptychotrema timorensis Spotted shovelnose ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[43] [44]
Skate Atlantoraja castelnaui(MIRANDA RIBEIRO,1907).jpg Atlantoraja castelnaui Spotback skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[45] [46]
Skate Atlantoraja cyclophora.jpg Atlantoraja cyclophora Eyespot skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[47] [48]
Skate Atlantoraja platana.jpg Atlantoraja platana La Plata skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[49] [50]
Skate Bathyraja griseocauda Graytail skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[51] [52]
Electric ray Benthobatis kreffti Brazilian blind electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[53] [54]
Stingray Dasyatis colarensis Colares stingray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[55] [56]
Stingray Brendos stingray.jpg Dasyatis fluviorum Estuary stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[57] [58]
Stingray Dasyatis garouaensis Smooth freshwater stingray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[59] [60] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis laosensis.jpg Dasyatis laosensis Mekong freshwater stingray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[61] [62] freshwater
Stingray Dasyatis margarita Daisy stingray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[63] [64]
Stingray Dasyatis ukpam Daisy stingray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[65] [66] freshwater
Electric ray Diplobatis colombiensis Colombian electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[67] [68]
Electric ray Diplobatis guamachensis Brownband numbfish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[69] [70]
Electric ray Bullseye Stingray - Day 267.jpg Diplobatis ommata Ocellated electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[71] [72]
Electric ray Diplobatis pictus Variegated electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[73] [74]
Skate Dipturus australis Sydney skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[75] [76]
Skate Vangst van een vleet.jpg Dipturus batis Blue skate decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[77] [78]
Skate Dipturus crosnieri Madagascar skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[79] [80]
Skate Dipturus laevis 2.jpg Dipturus laevis Barndoor skate stable EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[81] [82]
Skate Dipturus mennii South Brazilian skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[83] [84]
Skate Dipturus trachydermus Roughskin skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[85] [86]
Skate Glaucostegus granulatus TSCK.jpg Glaucostegus granulatus Sharpnose guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[87] [88]
Skate Rhinobates thouini Day 190.jpg Glaucostegus thouin Clubnose guitarfish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[89] [90]
Skate The Lazy Afternoon.jpg Glaucostegus typus Common shovelnose ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[91] [92]
Skate Gurgesiella dorsalifera Onefin skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[93]
Stingray Gymnura altavela.jpg Gymnura altavela Spiny butterfly ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[94] [95]
Stingray Gymnura zonura Zonetail butterfly ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[96] [97]
Electric ray Heteronarce garmani Natal electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[98] [99]
Stingray Whipray mandalay bay2.jpg Himantura gerrardi Whitespotted whipray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[100] [101] freshwater
Stingray Himantura hortlei Hortle's whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[102] [103] freshwater
Stingray Himantura kittipongi.jpg Himantura kittipongi Roughback whipray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[104] [105] freshwater
Stingray Himantura leoparda farglory.jpg Himantura leoparda Leopard whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[106] [107] freshwater
Stingray Himantura lobistoma Tubemouth whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[108] [109] freshwater
Stingray Stingray shedd.jpg Himantura oxyrhyncha Longnose marbled whipray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[110] [111] freshwater
Stingray Himantura pastinacoides Round whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[112] [113] freshwater
Stingray Himantura polylepis.jpg Urogymnus polylepis Giant freshwater stingray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[114] [115] freshwater
Stingray Himantura signifer.jpg Himantura signifer White-edge freshwater whipray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[116] [117] freshwater
Stingray Himantura uarnacoides.jpg Himantura uarnacoides Bleeker's whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[118] [119] freshwater
Stingray Himantura Uarnak 2004 Australia.jpg Himantura uarnak Reticulate whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[120] [121]
Stingray Himantura undulata lisbon.jpg Himantura undulata Bleeker's variegated whipray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[122] [123]
Skate Leucoraja circularis.jpg Leucoraja circularis Sandy ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[124] [125]
Skate Leucoraja melitensis Maltese skate decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[126] [127]
Skate Winter skate.jpg Leucoraja ocellata Winter skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[128] [129]
Stingray Myliobatis hamlyni Purple eagle ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[130] [131]
Skate Smooth skate 2.jpg Malacoraja senta Smooth skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[132] [133]
Stingray Manta alfredi at a ‘cleaning station’ - journal.pone.0046170.g002B.png Manta alfredi Reef manta ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[134]
Stingray Manta alfredi fushivaru thila.jpg Manta birostris Giant manta ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[1] [135]
Stingray Atlantic mobula lisbon.jpg Mobula mobular Giant devil ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[136] [137]
Stingray Mobula rochebrunei.jpg Mobula rochebrunei Lesser Guinean devil ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[138] [139]
Electric ray Fish4345 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg Narcine bancroftii Caribbean electric ray unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically Endangered[140] [141]
Electric ray Narcine brevilabiata Shortlip electric ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[142] [143]
Electric ray Narke japonica.jpg Narke japonica Japanese sleeper ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[144] [145]
Skate Okamejei pita Pita skate unknown CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[146] [147]
Stingray Pastinachus solocirostris Roughnose stingray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[148] [149]
Stingray Platyrhina sinensis.jpg Platyrhina sinensis Fanray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[150] [151]
Sawfish Pristis clavata 2.jpg Pristis clavata Queensland sawfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[152] [153]
Sawfish Pristis pectinata SI.jpg Pristis pectinata Smalltooth sawfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[154] [155]
Sawfish Pristis pristis - Georgia Aquarium Jan 2006.jpg Pristis pristis Common sawfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[156] [157]
Sawfish Sawfish genova.jpg Pristis zijsron Narrowsnout sawfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[158] [159]
Skate Raja pulchra.jpg Raja pulchra Mottled skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[160] [161]
Skate Raja undulata 2.jpg Raja undulata Undulate ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[162] [163]
Sawfish Rhina anyclostoma australia.jpg Rhina ancylostoma Bowmouth guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[164] [165]
Sawfish Rhinobatos albomaculatus White-spotted guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[166] [167]
Sawfish Rhinobatos cemiculus.raie-guitare01.jpg Rhinobatos cemiculus Blackchin guitarfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[168] [169]
Sawfish Rhinobatos schlegelii 1838.jpg Rhinobatos formosensis Taiwan guitarfish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[170] [171]
Sawfish Rhinobatos horkelii 2.jpg Rhinobatos horkelii Brazilian guitarfish decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[172] [173]
Sawfish Rhinobatos irvinei Spineback guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[174] [175]
Sawfish Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Jimbaran shovelnose ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[176] [177]
Sawfish Glaucostegus obtusus.jpg Rhinobatos obtusus Widenose guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[178] [179]
Sawfish Rhinobatos penggali Indonesian shovelnose ray decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[180]
Sawfish Rhinobatos Rhinobatos.jpg Rhinobatos rhinobatos Common guitarfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[181]
Stingray Rhinoptera brasiliensis Brazilian cownose ray decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[182] [183]
Stingray Rhinoptera javanica.jpg Rhinoptera javanica Javanese cownose ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[184] [185]
Skate Rhinoraja albomaculata Whitedotted skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[186] [187]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus syndey aquarium.jpg Rhynchobatus australiae White-spotted guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[188] [189]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus djiddensis durban.jpg Rhynchobatus djiddensis Giant guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[190] [191]
Sawfish M.E. Blochii Systema ichthyologiae iconibus CX illustratum (1801) (14766102852).jpg Rhynchobatus laevis Smoothnose wedgefish unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[192] [193]
Sawfish African wedgefish Bijagos archipelago.png Rhynchobatus luebberti Lubbert's guitarfish decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[194] [195]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus sp. nov. A Roughnose wedgefish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[196] [197]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus springeri Broadnose wedgefish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[198] [199]
Skate Rioraja agassizii.jpg Rioraja agassizii Rio skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[200] [201]
Skate Rostroraja alba.jpg Rostroraja alba Bottlenose skate decreasing EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[202] [203]
Skate Spiniraja whitleyi Melbourne skate unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[204]
Skate Sympterygia acuta.jpg Sympterygia acuta Bignose fanskate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[205] [206]
Stingray Taeniura meyeni makunudhoo.jpg Taeniura meyeni Round ribbontail ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[207] [208]
Electric ray Temera hardwickii by gray.jpg Temera hardwickii Finless sleeper ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[209] [210]
Sawfish Trygonorrhina sp.jpg Trygonorrhina melaleuca Magpie fiddler ray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[211] [212]
Stingray Urogymnus asperrimus.jpg Urogymnus asperrimus Porcupine ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[213] [214]
Stingray Urogymnus ukpam Pincushion ray unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[215] [216]
Stingray Urolophus bucculentus.jpg Urolophus bucculentus Sandyback stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[217] [218]
Stingray Urolophus javanicus Java stingaree decreasing CR IUCN 3 1.svg Critically endangered[219] [220]
Stingray Urolophus orarius Coastal stingaree unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[221] [222]
Stingray Urolophus sufflavus Yellowback stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[223] [224]
Stingray Trygonoptera testacea sydney.jpg Urolophus viridis Greenback stingaree decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[225] [226]
Stingray Urotrygon reticulata Reticulate round stingray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[227] [228]
Stingray Urotrygon simulatrix Fake round ray unknown VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[229] [230]
Sawfish Zapteryx brevirostris.jpg Zapteryx brevirostris Shortnose guitarfish decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[231] [232]
Skate Zearaja chilensis Yellownose skate decreasing VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[233] [234]
Skate Zearaja maugeana Maugean skate unknown EN IUCN 3 1.svg Endangered[235] [236]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Marshall, A.; Bennett, M.B.; Kodja, G.; Hinojosa-Alvarez, S.; Galvan-Magana, F.; Harding, M.; Stevens, G.; Kashiwagi, T. (2018) [amended version of 2011 assessment]. "Mobula birostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T198921A126669349. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T198921A126669349.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b Proposal 46: Genus Manta CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
  3. ^ The fight to save threatened sharks and rays WWF, 6 March 2013.
  4. ^ a b Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (PDF). IUCN. August 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  5. ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ Third of Shark and Ray Species Are Threatened, Study Suggests Science News, 27 October 2010.
  7. ^ Hoffmann M, C Hilton-Taylor and 173 others (2010) "The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates" Science, 330: 1503–1509. doi:10.1126/science.1194442
  8. ^ Conservation of Sharks CITES AC18 Inf. 1, 2002.
  9. ^ "The Greatest Threats to Sharks". Oceana. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
  10. ^ The Future of Sharks: A Review of Action and Inaction Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine CITES AC25 Inf. 6, 2011.
  11. ^ a b c Black, Richard (11 June 2007). "Sawfish protection acquires teeth". BBC News.
  12. ^ a b Glider of the sea threatened by 'traditional' medicine New Scientist, 25 March 2013.
  13. ^ Ari, C. (2011). "Encephalization and brain organization of mobulid rays (Myliobatiformes, Elasmobranchii) with ecological perspectives". Open Anatomy Journal. 3: 1–13. doi:10.2174/1877609401103010001.
  14. ^ Wassener, Bettina (12 March 2013). "No species is safe from burgeoning wildlife trade". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  15. ^ Manta Rays Endangered by Sudden Demand from Chinese Medicine ScientificAmerican, 17 January 2012.
  16. ^ "The global threat to manta and mobula rays" WildAid and Shark Savers. 2011 report.
  17. ^ "Manta Fisheries". The Manta Trust. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  18. ^ "Sri Lanka Manta Project". The Manta Trust. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  19. ^ "COP10 Outcome: Migratory Manta Ray under CMS Protection". Convention on Migratory Species. UNEP; CMS. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  20. ^ CITES conference takes decisive action to halt decline of tropical timber, sharks, manta rays and a wide range of other plants and animals
  21. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis microdon" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  22. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis perotteti" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  23. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis pristis" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  24. ^ Sawfish Is First Sea Fish on U.S. Endangered List National Geographic News, 4 June 2003.
  25. ^ Proposal 45: Pristis microdon CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
  26. ^ "CITES Appendices I, II and III". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  27. ^ a b Pacoureau, Nathan; Rigby, Cassandra L.; Kyne, Peter M.; Sherley, Richard B.; Winker, Henning; Carlson, John K.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Barreto, Rodrigo; Fernando, Daniel; Francis, Malcolm P.; Jabado, Rima W.; Herman, Katelyn B.; Liu, Kwang-Ming; Marshall, Andrea D.; Pollom, Riley A.; Romanov, Evgeny V.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Yin, Jamie S.; Kindsvater, Holly K.; Dulvy, Nicholas K. (2021). "Half a century of global decline in oceanic sharks and rays". Nature. 589 (7843): 567–571. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-03173-9. PMID 33505035. S2CID 231723355.
  28. ^ Davidson, Lindsay N K.; Krawchuk, Meg A.; Dulvy, Nicholas K. (2016). "Why have global shark and ray landings declined: Improved management or overfishing?". Fish and Fisheries. 17 (2): 438–458. doi:10.1111/faf.12119.
  29. ^ Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Davidson, Lindsay N.K.; Fordham, Sonja V.; Bräutigam, Amie; Sant, Glenn; Welch, David J. (2017). "Challenges and Priorities in Shark and Ray Conservation". Current Biology. 27 (11): R565–R572. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.038. PMID 28586694. S2CID 20632998.
  30. ^ Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Dulvy, Nicholas K. (2017). "Bright spots of sustainable shark fishing". Current Biology. 27 (3): R97–R98. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.12.017. PMID 28171764. S2CID 46839247.
  31. ^ Sumaila, Ussif Rashid; Cheung, William; Dyck, Andrew; Gueye, Kamal; Huang, Ling; Lam, Vicky; Pauly, Daniel; Srinivasan, Thara; Swartz, Wilf; Watson, Reginald; Zeller, Dirk (2012). "Benefits of Rebuilding Global Marine Fisheries Outweigh Costs". PLOS ONE. 7 (7): e40542. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040542. PMC 3396648. PMID 22808187.
  32. ^ a b White, W.T. (2006). "Aetobatus flagellum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T60119A12306888. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60119A12306888.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  33. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetobatus flagellum" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  34. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetomylaeus maculatus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  35. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Compagno, L.J.V.; Bennett, M.B. (2016). "Aetomylaeus nichofii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T84784918A68607458. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T84784918A68607458.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.[dead link]
  36. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetomylaeus nichofii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  37. ^ White, W.T.; Kyne, P.M. (2016). "Aetomylaeus vespertilio". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60121A68607665. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T60121A68607665.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  38. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetomylaeus vespertilio" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  39. ^ Kulka, D.W.; Sulikowski, J.; Gedamke, J.; Pasolini, P.; Endicott, M. (2009). "Amblyraja radiata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161542A5447511. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161542A5447511.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  40. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Amblyraja radiata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  41. ^ D'Anastasi, B.; Simpfendorfer, C.; van Herwerden, L. (2019) [errata version of 2013 assessment]. "Anoxypristis cuspidata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T39389A141789456. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T39389A141789456.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  42. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Anoxypristis cuspidata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  43. ^ Last, P.R.; Kyne, P.M.; Sherman, C.S. (2015). "Aptychotrema timorensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T60179A68609203. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T60179A68609203.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  44. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aptychotrema timorensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  45. ^ Hozbor, N.; Massa, A.; Vooren, C.M. (2004). "Atlantoraja castelnaui". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T44575A10921544. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T44575A10921544.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  46. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Atlantoraja castelnaui" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  47. ^ Massa, A.; Hozbor, N.; Vooren, C.M. (2006). "Atlantoraja cyclophora". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61398A12462475. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61398A12462475.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  48. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Atlantoraja cyclophora" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  49. ^ San Martín, J.M.; Stehmann, M.F.W.; Kyne, P.M. (2007). "Atlantoraja platana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63110A12608554. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63110A12608554.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  50. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Atlantoraja platana" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  51. ^ McCormack, C.; Lamilla, J.; San Martín, M.J.; Stehmann, M.F.W. (2007). "Bathyraja griseocauda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63113A12609854. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63113A12609854.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  52. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Graytail griseocauda" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  53. ^ Rincon, G. (2004). "Benthobatis kreffti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T44577A10921737. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T44577A10921737.en. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  54. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Benthobatis kreffti" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  55. ^ Charvet-Almeida, P.; de Almeida, M.P. (2016). "Fontitrygon colarensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60151A104170446. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T60151A104170446.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  56. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis colarensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  57. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Pollard, D.A.; Bennett, M.B. (2016). "Hemitrygon fluviorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41797A104116059. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T41797A104116059.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  58. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis fluviorum" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  59. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (2016). "Fontitrygon garouaensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T39406A104171073. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T39406A104171073.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  60. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis garouaensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  61. ^ Vidthayanon, C. (2016). "Hemitrygon laosensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T39407A104120090. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T39407A104120090.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  62. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis laosensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  63. ^ Compagno, L.J.V.; Marshall, L.J. (2016). "Fontitrygon margarita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161495A104172339. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161495A104172339.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  64. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis margarita" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  65. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (2016). "Fontitrygon ukpam". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T39414A104173622. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T39414A104173622.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  66. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis ukpam" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  67. ^ Caldas, J.P.; de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E. (2006). "Diplobatis colombiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61401A12471224. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61401A12471224.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  68. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis colombiensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  69. ^ Caldas, J.P.; de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E. (2006). "Diplobatis guamachensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61402A12471427. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61402A12471427.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  70. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis guamachensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  71. ^ de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E.; Bizzarro, J.J. (2006). "Diplobatis ommata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61403A12471646. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61403A12471646.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  72. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis ommata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  73. ^ de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E. (2006). "Diplobatis pictus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61404A12471946. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61404A12471946.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  74. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis pictus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  75. ^ Stevens, J.D.; Valenti, S.V. (2009). "Dipturus australis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161637A5470186. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161637A5470186.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  76. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus australis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  77. ^ Dulvy, N.K.; Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Serena, F.; Tinti, F.; Ungaro, N.; Mancusi, C.; Ellis, J. (2006). "Dipturus batis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T39397A10198950. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T39397A10198950.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  78. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus batis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  79. ^ Pollom, R.; Bennett, R. (2019). "Dipturus crosnieri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60118A124440461. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T60118A124440461.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  80. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus crosnieri" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  81. ^ Dulvy, N.K. (2003). "Dipturus laevis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2003: e.T39771A10256371. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T39771A10256371.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  82. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus laevis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  83. ^ Kyne, P.M. (2007). "Dipturus mennii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63124A12616691. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63124A12616691.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  84. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus mennii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  85. ^ Lamilla, J.; Massa, A. (2007). "Dipturus trachydermus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63116A12611753. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63116A12611753.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  86. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus trachydermus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  87. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Glaucostegus granulatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60166A68623788. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T60166A68623788.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  88. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Glaucostegus granulatus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  89. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Glaucostegus thouin". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60175A124447684. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T60175A124447684.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  90. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Glaucostegus thouin" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  91. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Rigby, C.L.; Dharmadi, Gutteridge, A.N.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Glaucostegus typus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T104061138A68623995. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T104061138A68623995.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)[dead link]
  92. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Glaucostegus typus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  93. ^ Rincon, G. (2004). "Gurgesiella dorsalifera". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T44656A10932771. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T44656A10932771.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  94. ^ Vooren, C.M.; Piercy, A.N.; Snelson; F.F. Jr; Grubbs, R.D.; Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Serena, S. (2007). "Gymnura altavela". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63153A12624290. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63153A12624290.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  95. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Gymnura altavela" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  96. ^ White, W.T. (2006). "Gymnura zonura". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T60113A12304400. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60113A12304400.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  97. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Gymnura zonura" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  98. ^ de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E. (2009). "Heteronarce garmani". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161746A5494167. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161746A5494167.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  99. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Heteronarce garmani" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  100. ^ Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; Fahmi; White, W.T. (2016). "Maculabatis gerrardi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161566A104186555. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161566A104186555.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  101. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura gerrardi" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  102. ^ White, W.T.; Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; Fahmi (2016). "Pateobatis hortlei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161598A104225574. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161598A104225574.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  103. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura hortlei" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  104. ^ Vidthayanon, C.; Manjaji, M. (2016). "Fluvitrygon kittipongi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161719A104306749. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161719A104306749.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  105. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura kittipongi" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  106. ^ Rigby, C.; Moore, A.; Rowat, D. (2016). "Himantura leoparda". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T195456A68628645. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T195456A68628645.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  107. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura leoparda" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  108. ^ Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; Fahmi; White, W.T. (2016). "Urogymnus lobistomus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161546A104290442. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161546A104290442.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  109. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura lobistoma" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  110. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (2016). "Fluvitrygon oxyrhyncha". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T44185A104180982. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T44185A104180982.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  111. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura oxyrhyncha" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  112. ^ Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; Last, P.R.; Fahmi; White, W.T. (2016). "Maculabatis pastinacoides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161540A104190354. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161540A104190354.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  113. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura pastinacoides" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  114. ^ Vidthayanon, C.; Baird, I.; Hogan, Z. (2016). "Urogymnus polylepis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T195320A104292419. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T195320A104292419.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  115. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura polylepis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  116. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (2016). "Fluvitrygon signifer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T39411A104182090. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T39411A104182090.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  117. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura signifer" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  118. ^ White, W.T.; Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; Fahmi (2016). "Pateobatis uarnacoides". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161547A104234006. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T161547A104234006.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  119. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura uarnacoides" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  120. ^ Manjaji Matsumoto, B.M.; White, W.T.; Gutteridge, A.N. (2016). "Himantura uarnak". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T161692A68629130. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T161692A68629130.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  121. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura uarnak" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  122. ^ Rigby, C. (2012). "Himantura undulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2012: e.T161621A14793852. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012-1.RLTS.T161621A14793852.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  123. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura undulata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  124. ^ McCully, S.; Ellis, J.; Walls, R.; Fordham, S. (2015). "Leucoraja circularis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T161464A48938919. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T161464A48938919.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  125. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Leucoraja circularis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  126. ^ Dulvy, N.; Walls, R. (2015). "Leucoraja melitensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T61405A48954483. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1.RLTS.T61405A48954483.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  127. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Leucoraja melitensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  128. ^ Kulka, D.W.; Sulikowski, J.; Gedamke, T. (2009). "Leucoraja ocellata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161631A5468670. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161631A5468670.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  129. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Leucoraja ocellata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  130. ^ White, W.T.; Kyne, P.M.; Last, P.R. (2016). "Myliobatis hamlyni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T60124A68634957. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T60124A68634957.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  131. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Myliobatis hamlyni" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  132. ^ Sulikowski, J.; Kulka, D.; Gedamke, T.; Barker, A. (2009). "Malacoraja senta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161477A5432745. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161477A5432745.en. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  133. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Malacoraja senta" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  134. ^ Marshall, A.; Barreto, R.; Carlson, J.; Fernando, D.; Fordham, S.; Francis, M.P.; Herman, K.; Jabado, R.W.; Liu, K.M.; Pacoureau, N.; Rigby, C.L.; Romanov, E.; Sherley, R.B. (2019). "Mobula alfredi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T195459A68632178. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T195459A68632178.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  135. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Manta birostris" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  136. ^ Marshall, A.; Barreto, R.; Carlson, J.; Fernando, D.; Fordham, S.; Francis, M.P.; Herman, K.; Jabado, R.W.; Liu, K.M.; Rigby, C.L.; Romanov, E. (2020). "Mobula mobular". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T110847130A176550858. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T110847130A176550858.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.[dead link]
  137. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Mobula mobular" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  138. ^ Valenti, S.V. & Kyne, P.M. (2009). "Mobula rochebrunei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.old-form url[dead link]
  139. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Mobula rochebrunei" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  140. ^ Driggers, W.B. III; Carlson, J. (2019). "Narcine bancroftii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T63142A3121523. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T63142A3121523.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  141. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Narcine bancroftii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  142. ^ de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E. (2006). "Narcine brevilabiata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61406A12472583. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61406A12472583.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  143. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Narcine brevilabiata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  144. ^ Carvalho, M.R. de.; McCord, M.E. (2009). "Narke japonica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161665A5475983. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161665A5475983.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  145. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Narke japonica" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  146. ^ Moore, A.; Weigmann, S. (2017). "Raja pita". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T161723A109916678. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T161723A109916678.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  147. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Okamejei pita" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  148. ^ Fahmi; White, W.; Manjaji, B.M.; Vidthayanon, C.; Badi, S.; Capuli, E. (2009). "Pastinachus solocirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161465A5430340. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161465A5430340.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  149. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pastinachus solocirostris" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  150. ^ Ishihara, H.; Wang, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Nakaya, K. (2009). "Platyrhina sinensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161589A5458790. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161589A5458790.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  151. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Platyrhina sinensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  152. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Rigby, C.; Simpfendorfer, C. (2019) [errata version of 2013 assessment]. "Pristis clavata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T39390A141790455. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T39390A141790455.en. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  153. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis clavata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  154. ^ Carlson, J.; Wiley, T.; Smith, K. (2019) [errata version of 2013 assessment]. "Pristis pectinata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T18175A141791261. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T18175A141791261.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  155. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis pectinata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  156. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Carlson, J.; Smith, K. (2019) [errata version of 2013 assessment]. "Pristis pristis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T18584848A141788242. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T18584848A141788242.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  157. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis pristis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  158. ^ Simpfendorfer, C. (2019) [errata version of 2013 assessment]. "Pristis zijsron". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2013: e.T39393A141792003. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T39393A141792003.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  159. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis zijsron" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  160. ^ Ishihara, H.; Wang, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Nakaya, K.; Jeong, C-H. (2009). "Beringraja pulchra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161669A5476757. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161669A5476757.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  161. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Raja pulchra" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  162. ^ Coelho, R.; Bertozzi, M.; Ungaro, N.; Ellis, J. (2009). "Raja undulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161425A5420694. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161425A5420694.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  163. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Raja undulata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  164. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Rigby, C.L.; Dharmadi.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Rhina ancylostoma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T41848A124421912. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T41848A124421912.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  165. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhina ancylostoma" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  166. ^ Séret, B.; Valenti, S.V. (2009). "Rhinobatos albomaculatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161320A5397463. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161320A5397463.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  167. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos albomaculatus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  168. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Bradai, M.N.; Morey, G.; Brahim, K.; Camara L.; Litvinov; F., Dulvy; N. Doumbouya, F.; Ducrocq, M.; Heenan, A.; et al. (2007). "Rhinobatos cemiculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007. Retrieved 10 March 2013.old-form url[dead link]
  169. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos cemiculus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  170. ^ Compagno, L.J.V.; Ishihara, H. & Marshall, A.D. (2006). "Rhinobatos formosensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2013.old-form url[dead link]
  171. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos formosensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  172. ^ Lessa, R.; Vooren, C.M. (2016). "Pseudobatos horkelii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T41064A103933918. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T41064A103933918.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  173. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos horkelii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  174. ^ Séret, B.; Valenti, S.V. (2009). "Rhinobatos irvinei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161409A5417520. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161409A5417520.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  175. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos irvinei" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  176. ^ White, W.T. (2006). "Rhinobatos jimbaranensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T63167A12625681. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T63167A12625681.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  177. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos jimbaranensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  178. ^ Compagno, L.J.V.; Marshall, A.D. (2019). "Glaucostegus obtusus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60170A124447244. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T60170A124447244.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  179. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos obtusus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  180. ^ White, W.T. (2006). "Rhinobatos penggali". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T63166A12625552. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T63166A12625552.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  181. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Bradai, M.N.; Morey, G.; Marshall, A.D.; Compagno, L.J.V.; Mouni, A.; Hicham, M.; Bucal, D.; Dulvy, N.; Heenan, A.; Rui Coelho. (2007). "Rhinobatos rhinobatos". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63131A12620901. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63131A12620901.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  182. ^ Vooren, C.M.; Lamónaca, A.F. (2004). "Rhinoptera brasiliensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T44595A10912274. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T44595A10912274.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  183. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinoptera brasiliensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  184. ^ Dudley, S.F.J.; Kyne, P.M.; White, W.T. (2006). "Rhinoptera javanica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T60129A12310446. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60129A12310446.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  185. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinoptera javanica" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  186. ^ McCormack, C.; Lamilla, J.; San Martín, M.J.; Stehmann, M.F.W. (2018) [amended version of 2007 assessment]. "Bathyraja albomaculata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T63102A136602064. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T63102A136602064.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  187. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinoraja albomaculata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  188. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Rigby, C.L.; Dharmadi; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Rhynchobatus australiae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T41853A68643043. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T41853A68643043.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  189. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus australiae" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  190. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Gledhill, K.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Rhynchobatus djiddensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T39394A121035795. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T39394A121035795.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  191. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus djiddensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  192. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Rhynchobatus laevis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T41854A124422344. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T41854A124422344.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  193. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus laevis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  194. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Jabado, R.W. (2019). "Rhynchobatus luebberti". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60180A124448712. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T60180A124448712.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  195. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus luebberti" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  196. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Rigby, C.L.; Last, P.R. (2019). "Rhynchobatus cooki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60181A151858712. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T60181A151858712.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  197. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus palpebratus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  198. ^ Kyne, P.M. (2019). "Rhynchobatus springeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60182A124448942. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T60182A124448942.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  199. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus springeri" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  200. ^ Kyne, P.M.; San Martín, J.; Stehmann, M.F.W. (2007). "Rioraja agassizii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63109A12607686. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63109A12607686.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  201. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rioraja agassizii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  202. ^ Dulvy, N.K.; Pasolini, P.; Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Serena, F.; Tinti, F.; Ungaro, N.; Mancusi, C.; Ellis, J.E. (2006). "Rostroraja alba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61408A12473706. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61408A12473706.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  203. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rostroraja alba" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  204. ^ Treloar, M.A. (2009). "Spiniraja whitleyi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161496A5436892. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161496A5436892.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  205. ^ Massa, A.; Hozbor, N. (2004). "Sympterygia acuta". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T44642A10931230. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T44642A10931230.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  206. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Sympterygia acuta" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  207. ^ Kyne, P.M.; White, W.T. (2015). "Taeniurops meyeni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2015: e.T60162A68646736. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T60162A68646736.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  208. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Taeniurops meyeni" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  209. ^ de Carvalho, M.R.; McCord, M.E.; Vidthayanon, C. (2009). "Temera hardwickii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161745A5493971. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161745A5493971.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  210. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Temera hardwickii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  211. ^ Stevens, J.D. (2009). "Trygonorrhina melaleuca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.old-form url[dead link]
  212. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Trygonorrhina melaleuca" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  213. ^ Chin, A.; Compagno, L.J.V. (2016). "Urogymnus asperrimus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T39413A68648645. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T39413A68648645.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  214. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urogymnus asperrimus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  215. ^ Compagno, L.J.V. (2016). "Fontitrygon ukpam". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T39414A104173622. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T39414A104173622.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  216. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urogymnus ukpam" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  217. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Last, P.R.; Marshall, L.J.; Trinnie, F. (2019). "Urolophus bucculentus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60088A68649040. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T60088A68649040.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  218. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus bucculentus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  219. ^ Last, P.R.; Marshall, L.J. (2006). "Urolophus javanicus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T60095A12247760. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T60095A12247760.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  220. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus javanicus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  221. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Last, P.R.; Marshall, L.J. (2019). "Urolophus orarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60100A68649829. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T60100A68649829.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  222. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus orarius" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  223. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Last, P.R.; Marshall, L.J. (2019). "Urolophus sufflavus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60104A68650134. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T60104A68650134.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  224. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus sufflavus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  225. ^ Kyne, P.M.; Last, P.R.; Marshall, L.J. (2019). "Urolophus viridis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T60105A68650230. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-1.RLTS.T60105A68650230.en. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  226. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus viridis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  227. ^ Robertson, R.; Valenti, S.V. (2009). "Urotrygon reticulata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161541A5447335. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161541A5447335.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  228. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urotrygon reticulata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  229. ^ Robertson, R.; Valenti, S.V. (2009). "Urotrygon simulatrix". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T161394A5413677. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T161394A5413677.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  230. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urotrygon simulatrix" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  231. ^ Vooren, C.M.; Lamónaca, A.F.; Massa, A.; Hozbor, N. (2006). "Zapteryx brevirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006: e.T61419A12478303. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2006.RLTS.T61419A12478303.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  232. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Zapteryx brevirostris" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  233. ^ Kyne ,P.M.; Lamilla, J.; Licandeo, R.R.; Jimena San Martín, M.; Stehmann, M.F.W.; McCormack, C. (2007). "Zearaja chilensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007: e.T63147A12623314. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2007.RLTS.T63147A12623314.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  234. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Zearaja chilensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  235. ^ Last, P.R.; Gledhill, D.C.; Sherman, C.S. (2016). "Zearaja maugeana". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T64442A68650404. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T64442A68650404.en. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  236. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Zearaja maugeana" in FishBase. March 2013 version.

Further reading

  • Camhi, M.D; Valenti, S.V.; Fordham, S.V.; Fowler, S.L.; Gibson, C., eds. (February 2007). "The Conservation Status of Pelagic Sharks and Rays" (PDF). Pelagic Shark Red List Workshop. Oxford, England: IUCN Shark Specialist Group. ISBN 978-0-9561063-1-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 January 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2012.
  • Dulvy, N.K., Baum, J.K., Clarke, S., Compagno, L.J.V., Cortés, E., Domingo, A., Fordham, S., Fowler, S., Francis, M.P., Gibson, C., Martínez, J., Musick, J.A., Soldo, A., Stevens, J.D. and Valenti, S. (2008) "You can swim but you can’t hide: The global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays" Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18 (5): 459–482.
  • FAO (2000) Conservation and Management of Sharks Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, Rome. ISBN 92-5-104514-3.
  • Faria VV, McDavitt MT, Charvet P, Wiley TR, Simpfendorfer CA and Naylor GJP (2013) "Species delineation and global population structure of Critically Endangered sawfishes (Pristidae)" Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 167 (1): 136–164. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00872.x
  • Fowler SL, Cavanagh RD, Camhi M, Burgess GH, Cailliet GM, Fordham SV, Simpfendorfer CA and Musick JA (comp. and ed.) (2005) Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes IUCN Shark Specialist Group, Status Survey. ISBN 2-8317-0700-5.
  • Musick, John A and Bonfil, Ramón (2005) Management techniques for elasmobranch fisheries Fisheries Technical Paper 474, FAO, Rome.
  • Teutscher, Frans (2004) "Sharks (Chondrichthyes)" In: World markets and industry of selected commercially-exploited aquatic species with an international conservation profile, Camillo Catarci. Fisheries Circular 990, FAO
  • Endangered and Threatened Species Under NMFS’ Jurisdiction National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA. Updated: 28 February 28, 2013.

External links

  • Protecting the fragile manta rays of the Maldives BBC, 5 March 2012.
Fisheries
science
Great Barracuda off the Netherland Antilles.jpg
Wild
fisheries
Law
Yellowfin tuna nurp.jpg
Management
Sustainability
Conservation
Advocacy
Related issues
1
Extinct
Threatened
Lower risk
Not fully assessed
Species
Lists
WP categories
  • Extinct
  • Extinct in the Wild
  • Critically Endangered
  • Endangered
  • Vulnerable
  • Near Threatened
  • Least Concern
  • Data Deficient
CITES
Lemur
By taxaConservation
1 Pre-2001 categories and subcategories shown in italics.