Extinct in the wild

IUCN conservation category

Conservation status 22
Bufo periglenes, the Golden Toad, was last recorded on May 15, 1989
Extinct
Threatened
Lower Risk

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IUCN Red List category abbreviations (version 3.1, 2001)
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and NatureServe status below
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The ʻalalā has been listed as extinct in the wild since 2004

A species that is extinct in the wild (EW) is one that has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as known only by living members kept in captivity or as a naturalized population outside its historic range due to massive habitat loss.[1]

The Guam kingfisher has been extinct in the wild since 1986

Examples

The scimitar oryx (Oryx dammah) is an example of a species which is extinct in the wild.

Examples of species and subspecies that are extinct in the wild include:

The Pinta Island tortoise (Geochelone nigra abingdoni) had only one living individual, named Lonesome George, until his death in June 2012.[28] The tortoise was believed to be extinct in the mid-20th century, until Hungarian malacologist József Vágvölgyi spotted Lonesome George on the Galapagos island of Pinta on 1 December 1971. Since then, Lonesome George has been a powerful symbol for conservation efforts in general and for the Galapagos Islands in particular.[29] With his death on 24 June 2012, the subspecies is again believed to be extinct.[30] With the discovery of 17 hybrid Pinta tortoises located at nearby Wolf Volcano a plan has been made to attempt to breed the subspecies back into a pure state.[31]

Not all EW species are rare. An example is the Brugmansia family, where all seven species are widely cultivated but none are found in the wild.[32] Ultimately, the purpose of preserving biodiversity is to maintain ecological function so when a species exists only in captivity, it is ecologically extinct.

Reintroduction

Reintroduction is the deliberate release of individuals into the wild, from captivity or from other areas where the species survives. However, it may be difficult to reintroduce EW species into the wild, even if their natural habitats were restored, because survival techniques, which are often passed from parents to offspring during parenting, may have been lost.

An example of a successful reintroduction of a formerly EW species is Przewalski's horse, which as of 2018 is considered to be an endangered species, following reintroduction started in the 1990s.[33]

See also

References

  1. ^ "2001 IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1" (PDF). IUCN. p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 June 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  2. ^ "Alagoas Curassow (Mitu mitu)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 7 August 2018. 7 August 2018.
  3. ^ Freyhof, J.; Kottelat, M. (2008). "Stenodus leucichthys". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T20745A9229071. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T20745A9229071.en.
  4. ^ "La Palma Pupfish (Cyprinodon longidorsalis)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 27 September 2018. 27 September 2018.
  5. ^ Qiwei, W. (2022). "Acipenser dabryanus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2022: e.T231A61462199. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  6. ^ Donaldson, J.S. (2010). "Encephalartos brevifoliolatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T41882A10566751. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-3.RLTS.T41882A10566751.en.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Franklin Tree (Franklinia alatamaha)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 3 February 2015. 3 February 2015.
  8. ^ "Golden Skiffia (Skiffia francesae)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 18 April 2018. 18 April 2018.
  9. ^ "Guam Kingfisher (Todiramphus cinnamominus)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. October 2016. October 2016.
  10. ^ "Hawaiian Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. October 2016. October 2016.
  11. ^ "'ALALĀ RELEASED INTO NATURAL AREA RESERVE". Aliso Laguna News.
  12. ^ "Rare Hawaiian crows released into native forests of Hawai'i Island". KITV4. Archived from the original on 24 October 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  13. ^ "Five more alala released into Puu Makaala Forest Reserve". West Hawaii Today. October 2018.
  14. ^ "Nectophrynoides asperginis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 25 July 2014. 25 July 2014.
  15. ^ Emslie, R. (2020). "Ceratotherium simum ssp. cottoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T4183A45813838. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-1.RLTS.T4183A45813838.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  16. ^ "Leptogryllus deceptor". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. August 1996. August 1996.
  17. ^ "'Last wave' for wild golden frog". BBC. 2 February 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
  18. ^ "Père David's Deer (Elaphurus davidianus)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 31 March 2016. 31 March 2016.
  19. ^ Yang, R., Zhang, L., Tan, B. and Zhong, Z. 2003. Investigation on the status of Père David’s deer in China. Chinese Journal of Zoology 38: 76~81.
  20. ^ "Scimitar-horned Oryx (Oryx dammah)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 27 April 2016. 27 April 2016.
  21. ^ "Scimitar-horned oryx returns to Sahara". Zoological Society of London.
  22. ^ "Zenaida graysoni (Socorro Dove)". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. October 2016. October 2016.
  23. ^ "Thermosphaeroma thermophilum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. August 1996. August 1996.
  24. ^ "South China Tiger". World Wide Fund for Nature.
  25. ^ "Panthera tigris amoyensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 30 June 2008. 30 June 2008.
  26. ^ "Spix's Macaw". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 20 June 2019. 20 June 2019.
  27. ^ "Wyoming Toads Begin To Recover As States Seek Endangered Species Act Overhaul". NPR.
  28. ^ Gardner, Simon (6 February 2001). "Lonesome George faces own Galapagos tortoise curse". Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
  29. ^ Nicholls, H. (2006). Lonesome George: The Life and Loves of a Conservation Icon. London, England: Macmillan Science. ISBN 1-4039-4576-4. Archived from the original on 14 September 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  30. ^ "Last Pinta giant tortoise Lonesome George dies". BBC News. 24 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  31. ^ "Scientists: Extinct Galapagos tortoise species could be resurrected". CTV News. 22 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  32. ^ Petruzzello, Melissa. "Extinct in the Wild but Still Around: 5 Plants and Animals Kept Alive by Humans". ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. Retrieved 16 November 2019.
  33. ^ "An extraordinary return from the brink of extinction for worlds last wild horse". 19 December 2005. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2018.

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The species Bufo periglenes (Golden Toad) was last reported in 1989
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